Scientific Publications

Innovative scientific research aimed at developing non-invasive diagnostics and broad-spectrum therapeutics in the fight against cancer


CyPath® Lung is a non-invasive, cost-effective, and accurate test to detect early-stage lung cancer in patients at high risk.


Through our subsidiary, OncoSelect® Therapeutics, we are advancing our discoveries to create broad-spectrum cancer therapeutics.

Peer-Reviewed Papers & Conference Presentations

Scientific Publications

Scientific Papers

Detection of early-stage lung cancer in sputum using automated flow cytometry and machine learning

Respiratory Research, January 21, 2023   Authors Lemieux, M.E., Reveles, X.T., Rebeles, J. et al. Abstract Background Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) may not lead to a clear treatment path when small to intermediate-sized lung nodules are identified. We have combined flow cytometry and machine learning to develop a sputum-based test (CyPath Lung) that can assist physicians in decision-making in such cases. Methods Single cell suspensions prepared from induced sputum samples collected over three consecutive days were labeled with a viability dye to exclude dead cells, antibodies to distinguish cell types, and a porphyrin to label cancer-associated cells. The labeled cell suspension was run on a flow cytometer and the data collected. An analysis pipeline combining automated flow cytometry...
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Reassessing Cobalamin Requirements in Cell Culture

Cell Bio, a joint meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) and European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO), in Washington, D.C., on Dec. 3-7, 2022. AuthorsDavid J. Elzi, Reggie Jacob, and Vivienne I. Rebel Introduction Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is an essential co-factor for the synthesis of components required...

Quality-Controlled Sputum Analysis by Flow Cytometry

"Quality-Controlled Sputum Analysis by Flow Cytometry" Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) – August 9, 2021   Authors Marcia Grayson, Shao-Chiang Lai, Lydia H. Bederka, Patricia Araujo, Jamila Sanchez, Xavier T. Reveles, Vivienne I. Rebel, Jennifer Rebeles   Abstract Sputum, widely used to study the cellular content and other microenvironmental...

Selective Cancer Cell Killing by Dual siRNA Knockdown of CD320 and LRP2 Receptors

“Selective Cancer Cell Killing by Dual siRNA Knockdown of CD320 and LRP2 Receptors” RNA Therapeutics Institute’s 2021 RNA Therapeutics Symposium at the University of Massachusetts Medical School June 23 – 25, 2021   Authors David J. Elzi, William E. Bauta, Shao-Chiang Lai, Trisha Das, Shweta Mogare, and Vivienne I....

Meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) is incorporated into cancer cells by the CD320 receptor and clathrin mediated endocytosis

“Meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) is incorporated into cancer cells by the CD320 receptor and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Poster Presentation" American Society of Cell Biology’s Cell Bio Virtual 2020; Cancer Therapy: Defining Therapeutic Targets and New Therapeutics, December 2-16, 2020   Authors D. J. Elzi, W. E. Bauta, J. R. Sanchez,...

Sputum-Derived Cellular Profiles Produced by Flow Cytometric Analysis

"Sputum-Derived Cellular Profiles Produced by Flow Cytometric Analysis, Poster" International Society for Advancement of Cytometry CYTO 2020, August 4-5, 2020   Authors Lydia H. Bederka, Shao-Chiang Lai, Jennifer Rebeles, Marcia H. Grayson, Xavier T. Reveles, and Vivienne I. Rebel   Abstract Sputum consists of a complex mixture of mucus...

Internal Validation Research Trial

Internal Validation Research Trial February 1, 2015 27 sputum samples: 15 lung cancer sputum samples and 12 sputum samples from patients without lung cancer, December, 2008 AuthorsT. Bauer II, MD, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center; D. Merrick, MD, Denver VA Medical Center; T. C. Kennedy, MD, University of Colorado...

Research at Los Alamos National Laboratory and St Mary’s Hospital

Research at Los Alamos National Laboratory and St Mary’s Hospital January 15, 2015 St. Mary’s Hospital and the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Medical Radioisotopes Research Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary studies from 1988 to 1992 researching porphyrins that led to more specific research...
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Learn More about CyPath® Lung

The CyPath® Lung Flow Cytometry Test has been licensed by Precision Pathology Services for commercial sale as a Laboratory Developed Test (LDT).

CyPath® Lung is a non-invasive test that assists clinical decision-making in lung cancer patients whose low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has demonstrated a suspicious finding.

The test reveals the lung micro-environment by automated analysis of sputum using flow cytometry to characterize cell populations indicative of cancer in the lung.

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